What is the sources and constraints of water supply in Singapore?

Its my geography project I needed the info urgently. people please help mee! (:

Four National Taps to provide water for all

1. Water from local catchment.
Singapore has 14 reservoirs and a network of stormwater collection ponds that help prevent flooding during heavy rains. By 2009, the water catchment area will increase from half to two-thirds of Singapore’s land surface with the completion of the Marina Reservoir and Punggol-Serangoon reservoir schemes.

2. Imported water
Singapore has been importing water from Johor, Malaysia, under 2 bilateral agreements. These will expire in 2011 and 2061.

3. Desalinated water
In September 2005, Singapore turned on its fourth National Tap, with the opening of the SingSpring Desalination Plant in Tuas. This plant can produce 30 million gallons of water a day (136,000 cubic metres) and is one of the region’s largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant.

4. NEWater
NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water produced from treated used water that is purified further using advanced membrane technologies, making the water ultra-clean and safe to drink. It is mainly supplied to industrial and commercial customers. Since it is ultra-clean, it is ideal for wafer fabrication plants which require high-quality water. PUB also blends 5mgd (23,000 cubic metres) of NEWater with raw reservoir water. This will be increased to 10mgd (46,000 cubic metres) by 2011. There are 3 NEWater factories in Singapore, with a fourth currently being built under a public-private partnership (PPP) agreement.

Singapore/ADB/PRC Forum on Urban Water and Environmental Management
Robert Wihtol
Director, Social Sectors Division
East Asia Department
Asian Development Bank
13 March 2007
Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen,

The People’s Republic of China (PRC) became the 48th member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 1986. Since then, ADB cooperation with the PRC has grown in volume and expanded to cover 30 provinces and municipalities and all major sectors. The PRC is ADB’s third largest shareholder and second largest borrower.

To assist the PRC in meeting its development challenges, ADB has adopted an operational strategy focusing on four areas, (i) promoting equitable and inclusive growth, (ii) making markets work better, (iii) fostering regional cooperation, and (iv) promoting environmental sustainability. In the urban sector, ADB is supporting the Government’s efforts to promote sustainable growth through urbanization, create jobs for the rural migrants, lessen urban inequalities, reduce urban poverty, improve public services delivery, and meet the increasing demand for environmental protection. ADB is also concerned with enhancing private sector participation and supporting policy and institutional reforms.

The Government of PRC gives priority to accelerating urbanization and coordinating the development or large, medium, and small cities and statutory towns as key measures to promote growth with equity. The objective is to move labor from agriculture to industrial employment in urban areas, to enhance economic efficiency. In the past 20 years, the majority of new non-farm jobs have been created in medium and small cities, and in the urban peripheries. However, to be effective and sustainable, urbanization must take place in harmony with the changing needs of the economy, and with due regard to social and environmental considerations.

The PRC has significantly improved its level of services for urban infrastructure over the last 20 years. In particular, access to piped water, sanitation, housing, paved roads, and green areas have seen major improvements. However, there are still significant shortfalls in other urban infrastructure services, and these have contributed to urban environmental degradation. There is a need to deal with the increasing demand for urban infrastructure, to meet the needs of rural-urban migration and to address urgent environmental concerns.

Ladies and gentlemen, the problems facing the urban and water sectors are too extensive for me to review in detail. I will briefly touch on a few key issues. The PRC is facing severe water supply constraints, and has a large number of cities with a water deficit (about 420 out of 661, with 114 cities in severe shortage). Inefficient management, failure of water utilities to record a reasonable profit, excess consumption, and insufficient revenue from tariffs are key problems. The issues related to wastewater and sewerage include insufficient treatment facilities to meet the demand, insufficient funding for capital investment, and the need for tariff reforms. Solid waste in many cities is not adequately treated. Many landfills are poorly managed and not designed according to regulations.

ADB is working closely with the Government of PRC – specifically the Ministry of Finance, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Construction and a number of provinces and municipalities – to support urban infrastructure development and environmental management. Many of the ADB-financed urban projects implemented in cooperation with the PRC have been rated highly successful, and have achieved the goals of supporting sustainable urban development, strengthening urban environmental management, improving wastewater management, controlling water pollution, supporting tariff reforms, and promoting private sector participation.

ADB is pleased to partner with the Singapore Government to organize the first Forum on Urban Water and Environmental Management for the PRC. Singapore is one of only a few countries and cities that has been successful in urban development and management. Specifically Singapore has succeeded in finding a good balance between water quantity and water quality considerations: water supply and water demand management: public sector and private sector participation: efficiency and equity considerations: and strengthening internal capacities and reliance on external sources.

This Forum will provide a platform for Singapore to share its development experience with senior Chinese officials on its water and environmental treatment initiatives. The Forum will also enable Chinese officials to network, share views and forge collaboration with key representatives of major urban and water management agencies in Singapore.

I would like to take this opportunity to express ADB’s warm appreciation to the Government of Singapore for hosting this Forum, and to International Enterprise Singapore for excellent organization and logistical arrangements. ADB hopes that we can build on this initial experience in developing further cooperation with Singapore and PRC in the future.

On behalf of the East Asia Department of ADB I welcome you to this Forum. I trust that it will be successful in strengthening sharing of knowledge and experience on a very important and timely topic.

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